The concept of light-driven biochemical reactions is now emerging as research field. The benefits are immediate: in one side take advantage of the enzyme’s catalytic excellence production of specialty chemicals of commodities like fuels; on the other hand, it does it at expenses of The renewable energy represented by the Light.
Indeed, it represent a modern “all-bio” conversion of Sun-Light energy into Chemicals or Fuels.
PhotoBioCatalysis is the combination of catalytic reactions often performed by redox enzymes fuelled by the direct energy of light or light-driven electrons. The enzymes are the fundamental players often resembled by oxidoreductases and must possess ability to be directly photo-activated by light, or receiving photo-electrons from a “light-inducible electron donor” often also known as pigment, or antenna. The role of antenna pigments is to absorb the Light and eventually to transfer an electron to catalyse the subsequent reaction. In layman’s term works as a electron/redox switcher where the light is the trigger and the electrons is the energy “literally shot” or transferred to the enzymes. The oxidoreductases are usually metallo-enzymes and must posses a prosthetic group (i.e. FAD) or at least a combination of surface exposed aminoacid that light absorbing. Or in case of LPMOs a copper-enzyme, could also receive an electron donated by a photocatalyst designed to match the redox potential requirements of the electron receiving enzyme.